chaptr 2




The aim of this chapter is to review existing literature relevant to the researcher topic, with a view to find out effect of instructional model. This chapter process the conceptual frame work and summary.

2.2 Conceptual framework

2.2.1 Concept of biology

Biology is one of the field in the natural sciences that studies living things. The word biology come from Greek words, Bio means life, and logy (logia) means study (Ezemoka, 2011) Thus the concept of biology is concerned with the study of life, structure, function, growth, origin, evolutions, distributions, interrelationship, problems such as diseases, and adaptation of things and processes solutions where possible. However, Biology is the branch of science that studies life using inquiry methods and discoveries.

Inquiry process involves asking question that stimulate students to think critically which enables students to develop scientific knowledge and scientific habit such as curiosity, and open minded etc that is needed for understanding biological concepts. Biology as science of life provide potentials for the use of many inquiry method. Abugu (2007) stated that biology is natural science in which we study living organisms, plants and animals. The knowledge of biology helps in checking environmental degradation such as desertification, erosion, water hyacinth, land, air, and water pollution.

The cardinal objectives of biology education are to prepare students to acquire adequate laboratory and field skills in biology; meaningful and relevant knowledge in biology; ability to apply scientific knowledge to everyday life in matter of personal and community health and agriculture and lastly reasonable and functional scientific attitudes (federal ministry of education 2004). The study of biology in senior secondary school can equip students with useful concept, principles and theories that will enable the face the challenges before and after graduation. Practical biology is the scientific study of the life and structure of plant and animals in their relative environment in real or experimental setup rather than dwelling in the theory and ideas (Opub, Eze and Eze Magu, 2008)

Biology practical teaching

Biology practical teaching are important in order to understand biology concepts. If science education aims to enhance the understanding of the Natural world by students and how it functions, then the students have to observe the relevant of science phenomena. Recent studies advocate for a change in teaching methods so that students participate fully and understand different science concepts (Miller, 2010). Students should understand processes and structure; develop skills in manipulation, processing of science information and conducting scientific investigations. Hence, the teaching methods such as learners design, reciprocal, divergent and self-check could enhance the teaching of biology practical lessons (Carpel, Least & Turner 2009).

A study conducted by Obiekwe and Chinwe (2015) in Nigeria on the teaching of biological concepts using the 5E (Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration and evaluation) model revealed that student who were exposed to the 5E method achieve better result than those whose teacher use the lecture method. Some teacher laid too much emphasis on content and the use of chalk and talk approach which does not enhance the teaching and learning of biology. This slackness and shy-away attitude from activity based-approach of instructional delivery has led to abstraction, which makes the students passive and more inclined to role memorization (Obiekwe & Chinwe, 2012). Such teacher centered method that put the students as passive recipients of knowledge and the teacher as the only source of knowledge might not improve achievement towards biology practical lesson.

The roles of instructional materials in the science classroom


Instructional materials are highly important for teaching especially for inexperienced teachers. The teachers rely on instructional materials in every aspect of teaching (Crist 2014). They need materials for background information on the subjects they are teaching.Young teachers find it difficult to express themselves when they enter the classroom.Therefore they need instructional materials to help them. Teachers often use instructional materials for lesson planning. These materials are also needed by teachers to assess the knowledge of their students.Teachers often assess students by assigning tasks, creating projects and administering examinations. Instructional materials are essential for all these activities (Crist 2014). These materials can also help teachers create assignment and project ideas for students. Teachers are required to use several different methods to assess their students in order to provide the most accurate assessments.Instructional materials often provide innovative and creative ways to assess students’ performance. It is hard to imagine any teacher who is capable of teaching effectively without accompaniment of instructional materials.In addition to this, any teacher who is deprived of instructional materials must likely experience stress and anxiety on daily basis (Crist 2014).Instructional materials are also designed to develop the learner to achieve his/her desires objectives in a learning situation/.Instructional materials bringscience to bear in the classroom. Offorma in Usman and Adewumi (2006) stated that successful implementation of any curriculum is fully dependent on the quality and quantity of instructional materials available to teachers and pupils for use in schools. Instructional materials stimulate learner’s interest; help both the teacher and the learner to overcome physical limitation during presentation of subject matter. Similarly, materials enrich learning and make it more pleasurable.They are used as checks to the teachers’ knowledge and means of transmission. Instructional materials also give the teacher the air of guidance, coordination, supervision and more time for correction, brightenthe classroom and bring variety in the class lesson (Eya 2004). Usman (2002) described instructional materials as information carrying technologies that can be used for instruction.Instructional materials have always held out in their different ways, the bright hope of delivery educational information and experiences widely, quickly, vividly with realism and immediacy that printed media could hardly achieve. A teacher for instant can explain and describe a pipette or burette but it is very hard to tell the students exactly what a pipette or burette looks like without a picture for clarity. The picture of a pipette or burette is an instructional material that would help the students to understand the lesson. Betiku (2000) explained that the term instructional material comprise all available and accessible, theoretical, practical and skill oriented resources, which facilitate the learningacquisition and evaluation of vocational technical skills. According to him they integrate all the devices that assist in transmitting the facts, skills, attitudes and knowledge to the learners within the instructional system and as may be applied in the word of work. Usman and Adewumi (2006) observed that instructional materials have been found to enhance the quality of the learning experience for learning in many ways. Among them are; they improve multi-sensory and multi-image factors responsible for inability of teachers to improvise instructional materials for the teaching and learning of science.


Effect of Instructional Materials in the teaching and learning process


The age at which children enter primary school today makes the use of instructional materials very expedient. This age between 3 – 9 years falls within Piaget concrete and preoperational stages of intellectual development. However Inyang-Abia (1994) and Maduabum (2000) asserted that various devices exist that can be employed to assist in the teaching learning process especially in the secondary Schools.Such devices vary from simple locally made to complex and sophisticated instructional media like radio sets, televisions, film trips, projectors, computers, and so on. Some of them are designed and cannot be available in the child’s ordinary classroom experience. The teacher’s task as a communicator, facilitator, model in identification of figures, can be supported by wise use of a variety of instructhe tional materials that expand significantly.Most research findings from the works of Sisteiland Harrison (2001), Inyang-Abia (2000) emphasized the use of instructional materials as aids for effective learning. Nursel (2001) noted that availability and application of instructional materials is advancement in teaching. He stated that instructional materials do not only help to bring about an enhanced respect for the teachers knowledge of the subject butinstructional materials are important because with them learners have a clear view of what is being taught. It helps in getting attention of the students. With instructional materials the class is more realities and it gives a view point on the topic. Instructional materials help the teacher to teach well as to make her lesson clear and understandable to the students Ogunleye (2002) and (Crist 2014)reported that instructional materials were inadequate in secondary Schools in Nigeria. They further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions. However, a professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained would be unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and materials necessary for him or her to translate his/her competence into reality. Thus,science is resource intensive, and in a period of economic recession, it may be very difficult to find some of the electronic gadgets and equipment for theteaching and learning of basic science in schools.


Instructional models


Models are representation of an idea, object, event, process or system. Model is a very important teaching aid for science and geography teaching. Model has a three-dimensional effect on the mind of the students. They are the replica of the real subject matter. Sometimes clay, paper, plaster of Paris and varieties color can be added to make suitable models of different objects.

Models and modelling play a crucial role in science teaching and practice. One justification for their inclusion in science teaching is that they contribute to an ‘authentic’ science education, where teaching reflects the nature of science as much as possible. Models helps in simplification of complex ideas this is by clarifying the structure of a complex phenomenon by reducing it to simpler and more familiar terms. Models allow learning to ask questions and a help teachers interpret the representation observed through questions



Models of teaching are conceptual frameworks that assist teachers in helping students learn how to learn. Grounded in major philosophical and psychological orientations towards teaching and learning (Joyce & Weil, 1996) they are prescriptive strategies that help teachers define their responsibilities during the phases of planning, implementing, and evaluating teaching (Eggen & Kauchak, 1988). Initially teaching models were developed after researchers became interested in understanding how learners’ characteristics and aptitudes affected student outcomes. Subsequently Joyce and Calhoun (1996) classified these models into four families: information-processing, social, personal, and behavioural systems approaches.


Effect of instructional model on academic performance of biology students


  1. Instructional model enhance students’ ability to accommodate new information while they are learning. These models provide a framework that assists students in acquiring and organizing information, identifying and solving problems, learning concepts, and constructing knowledge. Information-processing models are most useful when teaching a new concept or idea, or when students are expected to identify the concept or idea in action (Joyce & Calhoun, 1996).
  2. Instructional model help to build learning communities and to promote democratic processes. Group inquiry and problem-solving strategies are used to support students as they construct their own knowledge. Students rely upon their awareness of personal and social values to address issues. When students need to use scientific, social, or other relevant knowledge to make decisions about situations that have personal, social, or political implications (Joyce & Calhoun, 1996) the social models are recommended.
  3. Instructional model offers a framework for shaping learning experiences that aim to enhance students’ capacity for self-actualization, self-awareness, and autonomy. When students are asked to reflect upon their own goals, the personal family of models is appropriate (Joyce & Calhoun, 1996).
  4. Instructional model consists of frameworks that assist students in developing skill or content mastery. When using this approach to teaching, students must adapt their behaviour in order to make the changes that will bring about desired outcomes. Behavioural models are most practical when the primary task of learning is to acquire new knowledge or when the goal of learning is mastery (Joyce, Weil, & Calhoun, 2000). Each teaching model promotes instructional and nurturant [sic] effects (Joyce & Weil, 1996). An instructional effect refers to change in skills or knowledge base. A nurturant [sic] effect refers to non-instructional growth such as a change in habits, perceptions of self, others or situations, and social or emotional growth.\


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