SS1 first term biology scheme of work

SS1 First Term Biology Schemeof work


Week 1. Classification of living things

Week 2. Living things and Non Living Things

Week3. Classification of Living Things

Week 4. Classification of Animals and

Organization of Life

Week 5. The cell (Definition, Forms,

Structure, Functions and Theory

Week 6. The cell and Its Environment

(Osmosis, Diffusion, Biologic.


Week 7. Properties and Functions of the cell(Cellular Respiration)

Week 8-9 Mode of Nutrition and PlantNutrition (Photosynthesis and Chemosynthesis

Week 10. Growth (Basis and Aspects of Growth

Week 11. Revision and Examination

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Plant physiology

Plant-water relation lesson plan


Introduction to plant water relation


SUBJECT Plant physiology
TOPIC Introduction to plant water relation
AVERAGE AGE 15-16 Years
DURATION 45 Minutes
TIME  8:45-9:30
DATE 17/2/2021
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS Chart and video clip showed plant water relation.


PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE The students have already been taught the meaning of plants and types of soil suitable for planting.






At the end of the lesson, the students would be able to know plant water relations.
INTRODUCTION The teacher explains how plants control the dehydration of their cells, including the collection of water from the soil, how water is transported within the plant, and how water is lost by evaporation from the leaves














The teacher explains the relationship between water and plant. The teacher explains to the students that water is the most abundant constituent of all physiologically active plant cells. The smallest water contents in living parts of plants occur mostly in dormant structures, such as mature seeds and spores. The great bulk of the water in any plant constitutes a unit system. This water is not in a static condition. involves absorption of water from the soil, its translocation throughout the plant, and its loss to the environment, principally in the process known as transpiration but also through flow across cells in the roots and leaves.

Plant water relation

Plant Water Relation as an Osmotic System

The plasma membrane of a leaving cell is a differentially permeable membrane and the cell sap contained in the vacuoles is an aqueous solution of salts and sugars with a high osmotic potential. Since cells of a plant are in contact with a watery medium or with other cells containing water, they may absorb or lose water by osmosis. When a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, ( i.e. a solution whose osmotic potential is lower than that of the cell sap) water enters the cell. This inward movement of water into a cell is said to be endosmosis. On the contrary, when a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, ( i.e. a solution whose osmotic potential is higher than that of the cell sap) water moves out of the cell. This outward movement of water from the cell is called exosmosis. In making of plant water relation in a plants life osmosis plays very important role It helps in absorption of water from te soil and maintains the turgidity of cells.It also assist in closing and opening of stomata.

Role of Diffusion in Plant Water Relation

Diffusion plays an important role in several vital processes in plant water relation. It helps in the exchange of gases during photosynthesis and respiration; and in transpiration water vapors diffuse from the intercellular spaces toll outer atmosphere. During the passive salt uptake ions are absorbed by the simple process of diffusion.


















The teacher summarizes the lesson by re-explaining the key points of the topic.






 The teacher evaluates the lesson by



















plant physiology

What is plant physiology? Scope of plant physiology

Definition of Plant physiology

Plant physiology is the study of the internal function of plants. It is a sub-discipline of botany. Plant physiology is related to plant morphology, plant ecology, photochemistry, and cell biology.

The fundamental process of plants physiology includes:





Seed germination


Plant water relation


Circadian rhyme

Nastic movement


Environmental stress

Dormancy and stomata function


Scope of plant physiology.

The field of plant physiology includes the study of all internal functions of plants, chemically and biologically.

Plant physiology has 5 Scopes, These are:

1. The study of plant physiology includes the study of how plants produce a chemical in order to manufacture food and depend on themselves.

plant physiology

Plants produce chemicals that are not available in other organisms. They use some of those chemicals to attract pollination, plants use other chemicals to depend on themselves from herbivores by producing smelling chemicals, those chemicals also prevent them from diseases.

2. The study of plant physiology includes the study of the biological and chemical processes of the plant cells. A plant cell has features that differ from an animal cell. For example, a plant cell has a cell wall that limits flexibility. It also has chlorophyll that interacts with light to enable plants to manufacture their own food instead of depending on other organisms like how animals do.

plant physiology

3. Plant physiology includes the study of the interaction between cells, tissues, and organs within the plant. Different cells, tissues, and organs are specialized physically or chemically to perform different functions. For Example, Roots, and rhizoids fixed the plant, leaves catch light which is used by the plant to manufacture their own food.

plant physiology

4. Plant physiology includes the study of how plants regulate their internal functions. Plants produce hormones that are used to signal the cell to other parts of the plant.

plant physiology

5. Plant physiology also includes the study of how plants respond to conditions in the environment.

plant physiology


plant physiology




Homeostasis is the maintenance of stable condition in the internal environment. Cells become specialized for maintenances of the internal environment. Specialized cells evolved into tissue, organs, and physical system. Organs are made up of tissue which are then made-up of cells.

Homeostasis is the act of keeping the internal environment of a living organism within an acceptable range of condition. Homeostasis control blood volume, blood sugar level, temperature, PH, oxygen levels and other conditions. Negative feedback control homeostasis.

Negative feedback: Negative feedback keeps the condition out of the normal range. As the condition exceeds the limit of the normal range hormones regulate the condition. This is mostly often control by hypothalamus of the brain.

Positive feedback: positive feedback takes the condition out of the normal range. Example: During labor oxytocin increases contraction, which stimulate more oxytocin production until birth occurs.